Old Crap From My Attic: Atari and Sega Extravaganza – Atari 400/400/xl/xe, Atari Lynx, Sega Game Gear storage space win!

Old Crap From My Attic: Atari and Sega Extravaganza: Atari 400/400/xl/xe, Atari Lynx, Sega Game Gear storage space win!

Well, not exactly from my attic, but from my garage this time, and not exactly from there, but from my brother...oh, just forget where it came from and bask in it's glory...

Last weekend, my brother brought over two boxes of retro stuff that had been collecting dust in his storage space. He is just as much of a retro game / Atari nerd as I am, but he gave the boxes to me for safe keeping and enjoyment.

Today I will go through the first box and next time the second. This box contains Atari 8-bit computer software (14 titles)/hardware(2 pieces), the original Atari Lynx we purchased in the early early 90's, his Game Gear, and healthy selection of software (Lynx 36, Game Gear 9 games )  from  each.   The second box contains over 100 80's magazines for Atari computers, some with cover disks.

Atari 8bit, Game Gear Lynx

Atari 8bit, Game Gear Lynx

The Atari 8-Bit Computer Stuff:
- Atari 1050 Disk Drive (Atari Museum Page)
- Atari 1030 1200 Baud Modem (Atari Museum Page)
1. Atari XL (Silver) Ms Pacman Cartridge (Atari Mania Page)
2. Parker Brothers Popeye Cartridge (Atari Mania Page)
3. Parker Brothers Frogger Cartridge (Atari Mania Page)
4. Atari XL (Silver) Centipede Cartridge (Atari Mania Page)
5. DataSoft Pacific Coast Highway Cassette  in box (Atari Mania Page)
6. Sierra Official Frogger Cassette in box (Atari Mania Page) (John Harris Version)
7. Synapse Chicken Cartridge in box (Atari Mania Page)
8. Gentry Sea Bandit Disk and Cassette in box (Atari Mania Page)
9. Cosmi Aztec Challenge Cassette in box - Includes Vic 20 and Ti 99/4A versions also (Atari Mania Page)
10. DataSoft Pooyan Disk and Cassette versions in box (Atari Mania Page)
11. Cosmi Meltdown Cassette in box (Atari Mania Page)
12. Origin Untima 4 - Box, instructions, cloth map, etc. No Disks =( (Atari Mania Page)
13. Atari 400/800 States and Capitals Cassette in box (Atari Mania Page)
14. Atari 400/800 Energy Czar Cassette in Box (Atari Mania Page)

The Atari Lynx Stuff:
- Original Atari Lynx (PAG0201) Handheld 16-bit color game system in Box (AtariAge Page)
1. Tournament Cyberball (Atari Age Page)
2. Xybots (Atari Age Page)
3. Ninja Gaiden (Atari Age Page)
4. Klax (Atari Age Page)
5. Hydra (Atari Age Page)
6. Ishido Way of the Stones (Atari Age Page)
7. Batman Returns (Atari Age Page)
8. Viking Child (Atari Age Page)
9. Jimmy Connors Tennis (Atari Age Page)
10. Pinball Jam (Atari Age Page)
11. Pit Fighter (Atari Age Page)
12. Awesome Golf (Atari Age Page)
13. Turbo Sub (Atari Age Page)
14. Hockey (Atari Age Page)
15. Rampart (Atari Age Page)
16. Qix (Atari Age Page)
17. Super Skweek (Atari Age Page)
18. Gauntlet The Third Encounter - (Atari Age Page) (Curved Tip Cart)
19. NFL Football (Atari Age Page)
20. Warbirds (Atari Age Page)
21. Chips Challenge (Atari Age Page) (Flat Tip Cart)
22. Zarlor Mercenary - Probably my favorite Lynx Game of all time. (Atari Age Page)
23. European Soccer Challenge (Atari Age Page)  (Ranked as very rare)
24. Todd's Adventures in Slime World (Atari Age Page)
25. Crystal Mines II (Atari Age Page)
26. Kung Food (Atari Age Page)
27. Stun Runner (Atari Age Page)
28. Dirty Larry Renegade Cop (Atari Age Page)
29. Checkered Flag (Atari Age Page)
30. Basketbrawl (Atari Age Page)
31. Steel Talons (Atari Age Page)
32. Switchblade II (Atari Age Page)
33. Gates of Zendocon (Atari Age Page)  (Curved Cart Edge)
34. Rygar - The game I played the most. Damn awesome. (Atari Age Page)
35. Bill and Teds Excellent Adventure  (Atari Age Page)  - Not pictured, found in instruction pile.
36. California Games (Atari Age Page) - Not pictured, found in instruction pile.

The Sega Game Gear Stuff:

Sega Game gear Hand Held Color Console (Sega Retro Page) - essentailly and 8-bit Sega Master System with a better color palette and Stereo sound.
1. Disney Aladdin (Sega Retro Page)
2. Legend of Illusion  Starring Mickey Mouse (Sega Retro Page)
3. Sonic Spinball (Sega Retro Page)
4.  NBA Jam (Sega Retro Page)
5. Disney Lion King (Sega Retro Page)
6. Star Wars (Sega Retro Page)
7. Poker Face Paul's Solitaire (Sega Retro Page)
8. Gear Works (Sega Retro Page)
9. Super Columns (Sega Retro Page)

That's it for this time.  It will be fun to try out all these games and see what still works. None of it is for sale. Sorry.


Atari Bonanza – Old Stuff From My Attic. 2600 5200 7800 800 XL XE Jaguar ST

Atari Bonanza - Old Stuff From My Attic. 2600, 5200, 7800, 800 XL XE, Jaguar, ST

I decided to do an entire Atari excavation today.  I went through every box of Atari games and hardware (I might have missed an ST box and if I find it, I'll add it later) I have to come up with a definitive list of what I own.  I am not actually much of a collector, and much of my original 80's collection (aside from the Atari ST and the '93 Jaguar) have been purchased or given to me from 95 and beyond.  But this stuff has been collecting dust, and to get a good idea, and have some pictures for insurance purposes, I decided to take up all of a Sunday morning, sifting through boxes of stuff and organizing it before the cats ran over and messed it up.

First, here is an over-all pic of what I found and laid out on the area rug (it took more than the large area to hold all the original ST software).  Aside from the Lynx (which my brother Steve has), this represents a version of every game and computer system (not the stand alone systems like Pong and Super Pong Doubles, etc) that Atari put out on the mass market in the 70's, 80's and 90's.


10000 Foot View Atari Collection

10000 Foot View Atari Collection

This collection starts in the upper left -
Atari 130XE + SIO2 SD (use any disk image from the internet) + game carts (details further down)

Atari 2600 Carts + Manuals, Catalogs and Atari Force Comic Book (#3).

Atari 7800 + carts (some new in box) + Atari 2600 Wood Grain 4 switcher

A whole Bunch of 2600/800, XL, XE/7800/ST Controllers.

Next Row from Left to right:

Atari 5200 + a whole bunch of non working controllers, + games and an awesome Wico controller

Atari 1040 ST with a large piles of data / public domain , some awesome creative software and a Jaguar hidden to the right


Many many many Purchased Atari ST games and productivity applications, including the original Dungeon Master with Manual FTL sticker and collectible coin.

Detailed pics: 

The Atari 130XE - Compatible with the Ataro 400/800/1200XL/800XL/600XL/800XE/65XE and XE Game System.


Atari 130 XE

Atari 130 XE

  1. Atari 130 XE computer with SIO2SD . This allows any disk image to be downloaded from the internet and played on the system.

  2. 130  XE manual

  3. Original Atari Basic Learning Guide

4.12 Game  Carts: Millipede in box, Demon Attack in Box (needs translator to OS B disk to use), River Raid, Miner 2049er, Food Fight, Donkey Kong, Load Runner, Super Cobra, Dig Dug, Pac Man, Qix, Star Raiders.

  1. Atari Joystick, Power Supply and Modern AV Cable.
    The Atari 5200
Atari 5200

Atari 5200

  1. 5200 4 port joystick model.

  2. 6 5200 original joysticks in various states of disrepair.

  3. Wico 5200 stick

  4. A stack of game specific controller inserts.

  5. A stack of 5200 manuals and a stack of catalogs

  6. 33 Games carts: Jungle Hunt, Counter Measure, Soccer, Moon Patrol, Pengo, Missile Command, Galaxian, Football, Centipede, Pole Position, Baseball, Super Breakout, Space Invaders, Pac-Man, Qix, Star Raiders, Joust, Choplifter, Kangaroo, Star Wars, Qbert, Gyruss, Montezuma's Revenge,  Frogger, Congo Bongo, Zaxxon, Kaboom,  Dig Dug  In Box, Tennis In Box,  Pac-man in box,  Pole Position In Box, Wizard of Wor.

The Atari VCS 2600

The Atari VCS 2600

  1. A stack of 2600 game catalogs
    2.. A stack of 2600 game instructions
  2. The Atari Force #3 Comic Book
  3. 73 Game Carts: Strawberry Shortcake in Box, Phoenix in box, Mario Bros, Centipede,  Real Sports Volleyball, Real Sports Football, Pole Position, Moon Patrol, Real Sports Baseball, Real Sports Tennis, Ms. Pac Man, Vanguard, Kangaroo,  Pac Man (3 copies), War Lords (3 copies), Casino (2 copies), Breakout (text cart version), Super Breakout, Video Olympics, Football, Pele's Soccer, Street Racer, Defender (2 copies), Asteroids (2 copies),  Video Pinball (2 copies),  Space Invaders, Surround, Haunted House, Basketball, Bowling, Home Run, Combat (2 copies), Indy 500, Star Raiders, Adventure, Yars Revenge, Maze Craze, Human Cannon Ball, Sears Tele-Games Golf, Sears Tele-Games Pinball, Donkey Kong, Venture, Zaxxon, Donkey Kong (Signed by Gary Kitchen), Atlantis, Riddle of the Sphinx, Trick Shot, Demon Attack, Frogger (2 copies), Super Cobra, Stars Wars Empire Strikes Back, Qbert, Spider Fighter (2 copies), River Raid, Gran Prix (signed by David Crane), Pit Fall (signed by David Crane),  Enduro,  Decathlon, Robot Tank, Sea Quest, Keystone Kapers, Megamania.

The Atari 7800

 The Atari 7800

The Atari 7800

  1. Atari 7800 Console and 2600 Console
  2. 7800 controller sticks, 2600 controller sticks, paddles, Indy 500 racing controllers, Genesis Pad (will work with 2600,/7800/8-bits/ST), Master System Stick - works with  (will work with 2600,/7800/8-bits/ST, Star Raiders Controller, 2 Spectravision Joy Sticks.
  3. 17 Game Carts - Donkey Kong in box, Donkey Kong Jr in box, Dark Chambers in box, Choplifter in Box, Tower Toppler in Box, Baseball in box, Ms Pac Man in Box, Centipede in box, One On One in box,  Touchdown Football, Galaga, Robotron, Desert Falcon, Food Fight, Xevious, Asteroids, Pete Rose Baseball.

Atari Jaguar

Atari Jaguar

Atari Jaguar

  1. Original Jaguar + single pack in controller
  2. 8 Game Carts - Wolf 3d, Tempest 2000, Kasumi Ninja, Checkered Flag, Attack of the Mutant Penguins, Zool 2, Super Burnout (all in box), pack-in Cyber morph.

The Atari 1040 ST

This is the system that Steve and I spent the most time on in our youth - college.  The stacks of disks have many more Degas, Animation, and game projects than pirate games.  This was an incredible machine to grow up with (literally from 16 until 20, the most formative years of pre-adulthood).

Atari 1040 ST

Atari 1040 ST

  1. Atari 1040 STFM that has seen better days, Missing some keys.  I would like to purchase another is anyone has one they would like to sell.
  2. ST Color Monitor, 2 ST Mouse Controllers, ST 12oo Baud Modem, Video Sync Controller.
  3. 3 stacks of disks including a lot of college work, games created, art and animation for our films.
  4. Stacks of ST User, ST Action, ST Format and a couple START discs,
  5. STOS Game creator, Compiler, and Sampler with many game demo disks, full docs and manuals, etc.
  6. Cyberpaint and Art/Film Director software - one of the first key frame animation programs. It synced to the TV so we could create animations for our student films, etc. Awesome for its time.
  7. No Box, but full Version of Dungeon Master with FTL Sticker and and collectors coin.
  8. Boxed edition of Beyond Zork
  9. Boxed edition of the original Sid Meyer Pirates game

The rest of the discs and software (how many did you have):

More ST Discs 1

More ST Discs 1

Atari Algebra and Physics, Cybernoid, Galaxy Force, Artura, Deflecktor, Baal, Stunt Car Racer, Computes Atari Disk, Fighter Bomber, Silkworm, St Express, Joe Blade, Tracker, Speed Ball, Anco Player Manager, Corporation, Zynaps, Defenders of Earth,  Atari ST Language Disk (Basic + a Unix like CPM Shell), Darius +, Indian Jones, Axel's Magic Hammer, Super Cars, Skidz, Switch Blade, Dragon Breath, Power Drift, Ikari Warriors, Captain Blood.

More ST Discs 2

More ST Discs 2

Starting about the middle of the pic:

Menace, Super Hang-on, Eye of Horus, Enduro Racer, Crazy Cars, Barbarian, GODS, Batman the Caped Crusader, Blood Money, Buggy Boy, Micro League Baseball,  Afterburner,  Rick Dangerous,  Anco Kick Off 2, Neochrome, Beyond the Ice Palace, Battle Ships, Sidewinder,  Andes Attack (send money directly to Jeff Minter to get this one. Best action game on the ST!!!),  Street Fighter.


More ST Discs 3

More ST Discs 3

Starting about the middle of the Pic:

Blastaball, Butcher Hill, Outrun, Golden Path,  Zynaps, 1943, Double Dragon 2, Netherworld,  California Games, Star Quake,

Also, there are tons of Public Domain games and apps, since those are legit, I'll list them here These are from legitimate purchased Shareware disks from ST Express, and the PDC Library in Lynnwood Wa), and Bre Software Fresno CA
Sozobon C Compiler, Kong, Nitro, Galaxian, IBS Pegasus 2, ST Writer 3.0 + ST Spell, DDST, Werner, Dungeon Adventure, Lamatron from the ST Action Cover Disk, MJ C Compiler, Floyd The Droid, Lander, Matching Game, Bnoid, Galactic War, Fire Squad, Phantom House, Berzerk, Action Dungeon, Hero, World, Inspector Clewso, Pick Pocket, Super Simon, ST Breakanoid, Werty Hoiuse of horrors, Bubble, Worm War, Mouse Plaything.

We also have a stack of manuals.  Here I will list the game disks that are missing. Steve Fulton probably has these or they got lost in the shuffle some place (or they are in another box some place):

Better Dead Than Alien, Miracle Warriors, 007 Licensed to KIll, Super Wonder Boy. Xenon 2 Mega Blast, Blood Wych, Their Finest Hour (with decoder information), Tetris, Tau Ceti, Rampage, Gauntlet II, Operation Wolf, Oids, Bad Company,  Antic Flash, Techno Cop, St Star Raiders, North and South, International Soccer, Sim City (+ decoder card), War in Middle Earth, Road War Europa, Populous, Microprose Soccer,  Screaming Wings, Sorcerer Lord, R-Type, Xenon, Arkanoid Revenge of  Doh, Dragonscape, Exolon, Robocop, Phantasie III...

And there were many many more that we purchased.

Originally we had well over 200 2600 and 7800 games (including an original Super Charger) as well has 100's of purchased 400/800/XL/XE games also.  One of the big disappointments was selling out Atari 800 setup to a guy named Manny from Wilmington (are you out there some place?) If anyone has a bunch of old Atari disks with the names Steve and Jeff on some them and basic games we made like The Price Is Right, multiple funny sentence generators, and a slew of Pinball games made with Pinball construction set (along with the books listed, and many purchased games), please drop me an email at jeff@8bitrocket.com. For some reason we sold all of our own games that we coded and everything else, including an original Your Atari Computer Book, Mapping the Atari, and Doctor C Wacko books, magazines, and much more. It was to get an Atari ST, but still, I wish we had not done it.

I'm always looking to expand my collection of all Atari stuff for cheap prices. Nothing I have is for sale.  So much has been lost over the years that I would never part with anything I have.

Besides these, I have every Atari collection for multiple game consoles as well as a Flash Back 3 and 4 and a couple of the original Jaxx 10 game NES re-programmed VCS sticks.  I would have included the Flashback 1 or 2 if I had them because those were made with the love and care that Atari peripherals deserved by Legacy Engineering and put out by the last real vestiges of Atari.

Our new Podcast: 
The 8bitrocket Option Select Start Podcast will be based on this collections, Steve Fulton's collection, our recollections, new purchases, interviews (anyone who wants to be interviewed, send an email to jeff@8bitrocket.com), and our 6502 and 68000 game development projects as we apply what we have learned in modern game development to machine language new games for Atari and other retro systems.


The Dead Lexicon Of Classic Video Games (Ver. 1.1)

by fultonbot-Version 1.1

At the beginning of of the video game era, gaming nomenclature was yet to be coined.   This is our first look into the fascinating world of  "The Dead Lexicon Of Classic Video Games.

The editors and writers of magazines like Electronic Games created much of the nomenclature of modern video games.  Terms like "easter-egg" "playfield" and "shoot-em-up" were all coined within the pages of the first ever video and computer game columns and magazines.  However, many of the terms they created did not stand the test of time.   Some were used regularly, but have lost their meaning (see "burn-in" as technology has changed).  With this list we are trying to note as many of these lost phrases as possible.

For most of the entries below, we have identified a source.  This is not necessarily the first use, or the source of the definition, however, it was provided to give some contextual reference to where and when these terms were used.

Action Button: "The Stud on a home arcade hand controller.  In action games it is frequently used to initiate firing" (E.G. Jul. 82)

Arcade Ace: Name given to a start coin-op video game player. (E.G. Oct. 82)

Arcaders : A participant in the hobby of electronic gaming.  Used before the word "gamers" was popularized. (E.G. Winter '81, P. 6, E.G. Jun. 82)

Arcading: Refers to the past-times pf playing video games. (E.G. winter '81)

Arcade Quality: A term frequently used to describe home video game graphics in terms of their arcade counterparts. (E.G. Nov. '82, ColeccoVision advertisements, pg. 2)

A-B Switch: See Difficulty Switch.

Arkies: Awards given by Electronic Games Magazine for the best games of the year (Multiple issues of E.G. including Dec. '82)

Atari System X:  Code name (in the press)  for the Atari 5200 console.  (E.G. Sep. 82)

Augmented Text Adventures: Text adventures with minimal sound and graphics.  (E.G. Mar. 82).

Auxiliary Storage: Another name for disk drive ans cassette recorders used to store files for a computer (E.G. Mar. 1982)

Ball And Paddle Contest: Name given to Pong and  Breakout style games. (Arcade Alley, Aug. 81)

Bank Switching: The use of  separately addressable areas of memory so game system could access more data on a cartridge. (E.G. Jul 84)

Big Shake-Out:  Another name for the golden age video game "Crash" (E.G.  Mar, 1984)

Bird's Eye View : Another name for a top-down scrolling game. (E.G. Oct. 82)

Burn-In: Early hard-wired video game systems did not not rotate their on-screen colors, resulting in images permanently ghosted on a TV screen.  Atari solved this problem with the VCS using color-cycling routines.

Climbing Games:   Original name for "platform" games. (E.G. Jan. 83)

Coin-Op :  Short-hand for Coin operated games (E.G. Winter 81)

Coinoppers: A term used to describe people who played arcade games.

Computer Gaming Age, The: Roughly 1984-1987:  Refers specifically to the "home computer age" that overtook golden age video game consoles: Specifically the Commodore 64, Apple IIe and Atari 8-bit computers.

Contest: Synonym for "game", usually used with arcade or action games. (E.G. Oct. '82)

Control Disc: Flat, disc style replacement for a joystick.  Used on the Mattel Intellivision. (arcade Alley Jul. 80)

Controller Overlays : plastic cards for keypad controllers to guide players to the button assignments for a particular game.  Used with Intellivision, Atari 5200, and ColecoVision consoles (see Screen Overlay) (E.G. Oct. 1982)

Control Units: Another term for controllers.  (E.G. Winter '81 p. 11)

Conversion Kit:  A kit that allows an owner of a coin-operated game to turn it into a different game. (E.G. Aug. '83)

Dexterity Games: A reference to action-oriented and arcade games. (E.G. winter '81)

Difficulty Switch: A toggle switch on a console to set the difficulty per player of any single game. (Also: A-B Switch)

Electronic Gaming/Games: Term used to describe the hobby of playing  home video games, computer games, arcade games and hand-held electronic games. (E.G. Winter '81, P. 6)

Electronic Gamesmanship: A term used to describe the professional field of video games (E.G. winter '81, p. 6)

Electronic Amusement Center: Name given to upscale arcades that tried to clean the image  of of the "pinball parlors" of old. (E.G. Mar. 82)

First Law Of Coin-Ops: "Easy To Play, Difficult To Master" (E.G. Sep. 82)

Flipper Games: Another name for pinball machines.  (E.G. Dec. '82)

Frank Laney Jr.: Pen Name of Arnie Katz, co-editor of Arcade Alley and Electronic Games Magazine. Name was used so that Katz's work with video games did not interfere with his other journalism.  He dropped the name in 1982.  (Arcade Alley, Nov. '79)

Free In-Pack Cartridge : Free game that comes with console (alternative to "pack-in") (E.G. nov. '82)

Game Library: A term referring to an arcader's game collection or the collection of game available for a particular console. (Arcade Alley Nov. 81)

Gobble Game: A Pac-Man inspired game or clone. (E.G. Mar. 82)

Gobble Gaming: The act of playing Pac-Man and Pac-Man like games. (E.G. Jul. '83)

Gobbler: Slang for Pac-Man (E.G. Mar. 82)

Gobblins : Slang term for the ghosts in Pac-Man. (E.G. Sep. 82)

Gourmet Stick/Controllers: Name given to expensive, premium joystick controllers (i. Wico Joysticks) (E.G. Dec. '84,E.G. Jan. '83)

Hard-Wired Systems:  Early  video game systems with embedded games and controllers permanently connected with wires. (E.G. Winter '81)

Head-To-Head (Contest): A game requiring two or more player game. (Arcade Alley, Jul. 80)

Home Arcades: Another name for video game consoles (Arcade Alley, Jan. '80)

Home (Electronic) Version:  A name given to the translation of an arcade game to a console. (E.G. Winter '81, p. 15) (Video Magazine Arcade Alley Jan '80)

Hi-Res Graphics:  A term used to described graphics that looked better than "low-res" graphics, but the actual technical details were fuzzy.  Could have been more pixels, more colors, or both. (E.G. Jul. 84)

Illustrated Text Adventures: Text adventures with static images. (E.G. Mar. 82)

Invasion Game : A single screen game where invaders attacked and the player had to shoot them all (i.e Space Invaders, Galaga, Demon Attack). (EG Jan .83, pg, 22)

Interactive Programs: Any program that the user made choices or modified using input devices.  As opposed to "Batch" programs that ran on timed intervals and did not require user interaction. (E.G. Jul. 84)

Joystickers: Name given to people who plays console games (E.G. Aug. '83)

Knockoffs : A term used to describe games that copied the play style (and sometimes the graphics) of other games to cash in on their success. ( E.G. Oct '82, E.F. Jan. 83)

Lady Arcaders: Term refering to women video game players. (E.G. May. 82)

Master Component : A term used to describe a video game console in the context of an add-on peripheral (i.e a keyboard) (E.G. winter '81, p. 36)

Maze Game: Any game that uses an on-screen play field of winding passages that for mazes of maze-like elements.  (Arcade Alley Jun 81).

Me Too Game:  A game that is very similar to another already existing game. (E.G. Jul. '83)

Microcomputer: Usually referred to an 8-bit home computer, but the IBM PC was sometimes referred to by this moniker as well.  In reality, it was any computer that was smaller than a mini-computer and usually could fit on a desk.

Modular System: Coined by Mattel for the Intellivision.  The system was designed to add easily add additional components (i.e. computer keyboard, voice synthesizer). (E.G. Winter '81)

Multi-Playfield Invasion Game : Used to describe a scrolling shooter like (i.e Defender). (EG Jan .83, pg, 23)

Multiplexer: A device that allowed a computer or game system to access multiple ROM cartridges and select one to use. (EG. Jul. 84).

Multi-Screen Adventures: A term used to describe the advent of complex video games that went beyond a single screen.  (examples: Adventure, Pitfall!, Smurf Rescue)  (E.G. May 1983)

Overlays : this plastic card used for augmenting games.  Used for screens and cotnrollers.    (see Screen Overlay, Controller Overlay) (E.G. Oct. 1982)

Packy: A nick-name for Pac-Man

Pinball Parlor: Name for arcades in the age of pinball and electro mechanical games.  Usually connoted dens of danger,  teengers, smoking, drugs, etc.

Play-Action: A noun that represented the intersection on-screen elements with user interaction in a video game. (E.G. Jan. '83)

Pong Variant: Any game that used some combination of balls and paddles. (E.G. Mar. 82)

Pre-Programmed/Prepared Game Software: Games that could be commercially bought for and used by a home computer as aopposed to wriring your own software.  (Arcade alley, Jul 81, Aug. 81)

Programmable Game System/Machine: Name given to to the first generation of game systems that would accept cartridges instead only playing built-in games.  (E.G. Winter '81 p. 16)

Programmable Videogame Rights:  Used to describe a licenses acquired by a video game publisher to create a translation of a game for a home console.  (E.G. Winter '81, p.32)

Programmability : Used to describe the most important attribute of console video game system, the ability to use swappable cartridges (E.G. winter '81, p. 31)

Quadrascan : Atari's trademarked name for their vector monitor, used as an adjective. Named because Atari's technology broke the vector screen into 4 parts for faster processing (E.G. Winter '81, p. 14, E.G. Mar. 82)

Quarter Snatcher: Slang term for an arcade coin-op video game. (E.G. Mar. 82)

Rack: A synonym for "level", stems from it's use in the game of Pool. (See also: "Scenario")  (E.G. Oct. '82)

Rasterscan: Term used to describe the the way a standard television monitor creates a pixel-based display. (Arcade alley, Dec. 81)

Resident (Game): A game included in the ROM of console that plays by default if no other game cartridge is inserted. (E.G. Nov. 82, In reference to MineStorm for Vectrex, p. 26)

R.F. Modulator:  A device attached to the antenna input of a TV to display the output of a video game system.   Converts signals from a video game system into a format that can be used by television (E.G. Winter '81)

Roller Controller: Another name for a Trac-Ball style controller.  Specifically introduced by Coleco for ColecoVision (E.G. May '83)

Rollover: When  the score of a video game returned to zero because the memory allocated for the score reached it's maximum value.

ROM Cartridge: Another name for a game cartridge.   Contained a game program burned into Read-Only-Memory tha twas read by game console (Arcade Alley, Sep. 81)

Scenario: Early name for what would become "level". See also "Rack" (E.g. Aug. '83)

Screen Overlays: Clear plastic screen placed over a video game screen to add color, design and static images to game play experience. (Use in with Vectrex console)  (E.G. Oct. 82)

Scrolling Shoot-Out: Name given to games like "Defender" of which it was (possibly) the first in the genre. (E.G. Oct. '82)

Senior Game System:  Name given the the Atari 5200 and Colecovision in 1982. (E.G. Jul. 84)

Sequence Game : A memory game (i.e Simon) (E,G. Winter '81 p. 19)

Shoot 'Em Up: A game genre where the object was to shoot at as many targets as possible before your player (or players) was (were) destroyed.

Solitaire Videogame/Game : Used to describe a single player game.   The lack of single player or "solitaire" games is what hampered many game systems in the early 80's.  Readers complained that the Intellivision and Odyssey were difficult to play alone.  The Atari VCS on the other hand, had a line-up of games that could be played "solitaire" or by multiple people.  (EG Jan. 83, p. 24. E.G. Mar, 82)

Stand-Alone : A term used to describe a table-top video game system that with neither hand-held nor a console (i.e. Vectrex, Cosmos) (E.G. winter '81, p. 15)

Stand Alone Programmable: A Stand alone video game system with swappable games. (see Stand Alone) (E.G. Winter '81 p. 16)

Standard Programmables: See Programmable Game System

Standard Videogame System: Name given to a videogame system with less than 4K of memory and low resolution graphics. (E.G. Jul. 84)

Table-Top Game System: Name given to a stand-alone game system that is too big to hold (E.G. Vectrex) (E.G. Jul. 84)

"The Play's The Thing": Arcade Alley and Electronic Game's informal motto for game design.  They believed that when all was said and done, the way a game played was the most important aspect. Cribbed from Hamlet. (Arcade Alley Sep. 81, E.G. Sep. '82)

Third Wave Videogaming:  A term used to to describe the act of playing games on a  3rd generation of video game consoles such as the ColecoVision and Atari 5200. (E.G. Jan. 83)

Three Quarter Overview: Another name for isometric view

Translation: A version of game created for another system other than the original.  Sometimes with a different name or look, but not a "knock-off" (See: The Incredible Wizard re: Wizard Of Wor in Sep. 82 issue of E.G. page 88).

Trek-Type : Term used to describe strategic/tactical space-battle simulation games (E.G. Star Raider, Star Masters).  Named after the mainframe games "Trek" and "Star Trek") (E.G. Oct. '82)

Turnover: see Rollover.

Vanity Board: Printed national high score chart chart for coin-op video games. (E.G. Dec. 82)

Variations:  Different versions of a game on a single cartridge that changed up the variables and offered different styles of play and increasing difficulty.   Mostly used in early Atari VCS games played in short play sessions.   Variations fell out of favor when the the concept of game "levels" was created. Levels allowed  players play much longer in a single session  of game as the difficulty and options increased dynamically.    (Arcade Alley Jan. 81)

Vector Monitor: Display system that displayed graphics as lines drawn between two points as opposed to the bit-mapped pixels of a rasterscan display.  (E.G. Mar. 82)

Vectorbeam: Vector-based monitor system developed by Cinemtronics. (E.G. Mar. 82)

Videogame: Used interchangeably with "video game" (EG. Jan, 83, p 24)

Videogaming Era: Roughly 1977-1983.  When golden age video games were at the height of their popularity. Followed by The Computer Age. (E.G. Oct. 84)

Wrap-Around: A technique in ag me that allowed a player to exit on side of the screen and appear on the opposite side. (EG. Jul. 84)





Top-10 Classic Video Game Magazine Christmas Ads, Covers, & Content

By Steve Fulton

Some of these are good, some are terrible, but all of them are memorable.   Here is a run down my favorite Christmas content from classic gaming and computer magazines like Electronic Games, Joystik, Electronic Fun and Atari Connection.

#10 Subscription Pleas



Every magazine contains advertisements trying to get readers to subscribe.  However, these classic video game magazine ads for subscriptions are interesting for one reason: timing.  The Electronic Fun advertisement (first  one above)  came in the December 1983 issue.   I asked for, and received, a  year-long subscription for Xmas 1983.   Too bad the magazine only lasted another 5 months. After that, I was treated to 8 issues of "Video Review" as a substitute for my beloved Electronic Fun published by the same company.  For this video game obsessed kid, it  was no substitute at all.

The second advertisement is for Joystik.   Joystik was not bad, but it was never really one of my favorites magazine.   It was glossy and colorful, but it never felt authentic.    However, it would have been the worst magazine ever if I had followed this advertisement to subscribe, as the ad appeared in the last issue of the magazine ever published.

The last ad, for Electronic Games. I sent away for this one  and was happy with the result, as it stayed in publication for another 2 and 1/2 years.

#9 Atari Checklist


This ad appeared in several magazines in December 1983.  For Christmas that year,  any kids who still had an Atari 2600 should have been begging for any of these games. Ms. Pac-Man alone was worth having an Atari 2600, but Vanguard and Moon Patrol were good too as was Jungle Hunt and Phoenix.      It just proves that Atari, even after the disaster that was 1982, still pushed to make great games for their console, even through their last Christmas season as an intact company.  On the other hand, by the end of 1983 Atari knew that had an absolute dog on their hands with the 5200.  The games were good, but system itself was not selling for a variety of reasons (terrible controllers, no built-in backwards compatibility, etc.). It might seem disingenuous to push the 5200, but what else were they supposed to do?    If the system caught-fire over the holiday season of 1983, things could have turned out very different for the world's first video game company.   They certainly had a great line-up of games.


#8 Atari Gift Collections


atari_gift_colelction_winter_81_atari_connection  atari_connection_winter82_gifts atari_connection_winter82_giftsformom

Atari Connection was a little known magazine produced by Atari Inc. in their heyday to support their line of computers.  The best thing about the "winter" issues of the magazine were  the Atari "holiday gifts" they sold direct to consumers.   Buttons, t-shirts, money-clips, letter openers, hats, and all manner of other consumers items that could have the Atari logo slapped on could be had for Atari fans lucky enough to know where to get them.    My favorite "gift" collection however is the totally sexist "Gifts For Mom" software  that includes "Recipe Search And Save" as it's main offering.  If I have one pet peeve about the early days of home computing, it is the fact that "Recipe Management" was a real and serious selling point that companies came-up to try to sell computers to families.  Kids could "learn" with educational software, dad could play Star Raiders, and mom's could manage their recipes with a computer.  Have fun mom. It was all laid-out like the 50's all over again.   I'm convinced that this kind of marketing is the reason women did not feel necessarily welcome to home computers in the 80's:  they offered nothing but the same crap they were already dealing with.   Dads played games, kids got new learning tools, and mom got to continue doing her "work", but now with an electronic brain to make her more efficient so she could do more.  Yea mom!

#7 Find The Bug



The pages of Atari Connection were not only filled with advertisements for Atari trinkets and sexist software pitches, it also made an attempt to teach BASIC programming.  The Winter 1982 issue contained this cool "Santa" themed "find the bug" puzzle.   I truly believe that hobbyist computer and video game magazines lost something special when they stopped printing program listings for users to read and type into their machines.   Even the video game magazine Electronic Fun printed user-made program listings for readers to type in and enjoy. We would probably live in ubiquitous STEM world where every kid could write their own software programs if if video and computer game magazines had simply continued this tradition into the modern age.

#6 Computer Game Ads

astrochase_jan83eg datamost_dec84eg synapse_xmas_jan83eg

Computer game ads, for many ears, were like the "punk rock" of golden age of gaming.  At the time, computer game companies were mostly D.I.Y. operations started by married couples. business partners, or single individuals who had a passion for making games for the first era of home computers.   They created a market out of the ether to serve an audience growing tired of the same-old video games (see The Atari Checklist above) and wanted more and different experiences.   Their advertisements were not always the most professional, but they had a flair for eye-catching visuals visuals that felt both "home-grown" and "cool" in the back pages of video game computer game magazines.   In many ways, I really miss theses types of multi-game advertisements, meant to showcase popular games, but also let players know about 2nd tier titles that had not been so popular.    Back then, seeing all these game images and box shots sparked my imagination.  I wanted to play all these games, and discover the particular angle an view point each author/programmer/design brought to their particular piece of work.  It was an era lost for many many years, but thankfully, has returned with the advent of Steam, where finding good and interesting indie computer games is just a few clicks away.

#5 Electronic Games : You Can Be a Game Designer


EG_cover_dec82 gamedesigner


The first "Christmas Issue" of Electronic Games also had the most iconic "holiday" cover of any classic era video game magazine.   However, the most memorable part of this magazine was not the cover, or the gift guides inside, but the story "You Can Be A Game Designer".  I was twelve years old when I read this story, and it was one of the first times I realized that I wanted to make games for a living.  It was a long road to get there, but in retrospect,  this story, in the 1982 Xmas issue of Electronic Games was one of the best presents I ever received.


#4 Wizard Video Games


Wizard's "violent" and "adult" Atari 2600 games were truly awful.   However, the fact that they made a special "Christmas" advertisement in 1982 from Electronic Games to try to sell them is pretty special in my opinion, especially considering the fate of the games advertised.   "Flesh Gordon": was never released, and "Texas Chainsaw Massacre" was a buggy mess.   However, they gained press because they were banned at many stores, and saw a few protests by concerned citizens.   No kid wanted these games.   We wanted "Pitfall!" and "River Raid" for Xmas 1982.    However, it's still an interesting footnote in video game history to see a full-page Christmas advertisement for adult content in the industry's  best publication.


#3 Electronic Fun's  "Phantom" E.T. Cover


ef_cover_dec82 ethicsmar83


Electronic Fun was an upstart video game magazine that was inspired by the  format and content style from Electronic Games.   Bill Kunkel dismissed it many times, and on the surface, it was a flattering copy of the first video game magazine.  However, after the first few issues, Electronic Fun grew into it's own, competent publication.   I never learned the names of people involved, like I did with EG, but  EF brought some very interesting concepts to the video game periodical table.  They used a " number of joysticks" rating system for reviews, featured some very in-depth interviews with game programmers and designers, and even featured short BASIC games for people with computers to type in and play.

However, they also appeared the partake in some editorial shenanigans. This cover was from their 2nd issue, and it says a lot about the industry at the time.   There is E.T. on the front cover playing what appears to be a "Santa" themed video game.   However, the most interesting part of the magazine is what is not inside.  There is almost no mention of the E.T. game for the Atari 2600 (or the 8-bit computer version) in the magazine at all.  The cover and the words "E.T/ Ready for Xmas" appears to be an endorsement for a video game the magazine had not even seen yet.     Did Atari buy the cover?  Was this an advertisement masquerading as editorial?   I do not know the answer.  It could have been completely on the up and up, but there have been hints otherwise.

The "real" concept of "Ethics In Game Journalism" has been around since 1982 (by "real" I mean large companies and organizations  colluding in big way that hurts consumers, not indie gamers trying to get nominal  press for their games-as-art style creations.  Both are an issue, but one is much more impactful than the other one.),   Electronic  Games actually went ahead and covered the situation in their March 1983 issue with Arnie Katz's "Switch On" editorial named "Setting Some Standards" (you can see it above)  Magazines at the time had 3-month lead-time, so this editorial was probably written at just about the same time this "Phantom E.T." cover hit the news stand.  The 4th item on the list appears to confront this situation directly:


Arnie Katz described their main competitor , Electronic Fun this way " they had some writers reviewing games at times from photos of the screen shot. I remember a review (from one of their writers) about Kaboom! It was a review of Kaboom!, but he had never played it, apparently -- just seen a picture. He described it as "flaming bowling pins." I mean, there was some not very well done stuff in that magazine".

Electronic Fun was run by magazine industry professionals who were not necessarily fans of video games.  Randi Hacker, the Senior Editor has admitted as much, as has Dan Gutman, the Managing Editor who told 2600 Connection that he wrote for  Electronic Fun " for career reasons rather than for the love of it" .  This was in contrast to the creators of Electronic Games, who truly loved the field of video games and wanted to see the medium proper and grow.  No wonder they were not big fans of Electronic Fun magazine.

I still have no real clue why this E.T. cover appeared on a magazine with no coverage of the game inside.  Imagine the "******gate"  if that happened now!

#2 Twelve  Days Of Gamesmas


EGstaff_jan85I loved Arnie Katz's articles and editorials in Electronic Games Magazine.   They were always heart-felt, and never fan-boyish.   He covered many of the same issues that plague gaming now, and foresaw many of the problems and issues that still exist today.  Bill Kunkel, on the other hand,  was the fan-boy who loved gaming for games-sake. (I loved his stuff too).  Joyce Worley was the news editor and stamped the whole opoeration with a sense of professionalism.  The January 1985 issue (published December 1984)  of Electronic Games was the last Christmas issue of the magazine.    It was also either one of the final issues, or  the final issue that any of the original creators of the magazine had control over the content.     Any gamer who read this in 1984 would have understood most of the references, but 30 years later, you'd be hard-pressed to find any gamer who could name some of them much less all of them.   Here is a quick list to help you decipher what it all means.

  • Twleve Kings A Questing: (Sierra's King's Quest) (
  • Eleven Froggers Hopping (Frogger)
  • Ten text adventures (Infocom games. You know, kinda like Depression Quest. We liked those back then.  We still like 'em now)
  • Nine Runner's Loding (Lode Runner)
  • Eight Jacks Attacking (The Commodre 64 game Jack Attack?  Maybe the most obscure reference possible.)
  • Six Games A-booting (games took a long time to load from 90K disk drive.  Even longer from cassette tape)
  • Five Gourmet Sticks (he's referring to joysticks. Expensive, quality joysticks, probably from Wico)
  • Four monitors (It was cool back then to have a dedicated monitor instead of having to play computer games on your TV)
  • Three disk Files (no computer files, but those plastic disk boxes that held 5 1/2 inch floppy disks)
  • Two Stand-Alones (Dedicated table top game consoles.  The best at the time was the Vectrex)
  • And A Lifetime sub to E.G. (Another subscription plea.  This time for magazine that only had 2 more issues)

I'm not sure if Katz knew it at the time, but this parody of "The Twelve Days Of Christmas", while it hasn't aged particularly well, certainly earns its' place a piece of bona-fide video game history, as it sets this issue of the magazine  in a definitely place in time that has been buried and forgotten.   And that's too bad, because it was an important time, and Katz, Kunkel and Worley chronicled the whole era.  Excuse me if I get a bit teary-eyed when I look at picture to right, as it shows the staff of the first great video game magazine.    When I was a kid, these were the people that led me through the darkness, and told me about everything video games were and could be. The gentleman in the middle, holding the "gourmet stick" is Arnie Katz.  The guy lying on the floor in Bill Kunkel (RIP).  Joyce Worley is the woman on the far right in the back.    At the end of 1984, this was the final goodbye from the first era of video games.  Everyone else had left the building, literally, and figuratively.

It is an era forgotten by most, and dismissed by many.

A time buried away under the sands of time and Alamogordo.

A time I will never forget.

#1 Atari Christmas Morning


Finally, I just love the cover of this magazine.  It's an Atari Christmas morning, and it reminds me distinctly of the early hours on Xmas 1983, when my brother and I received our first computer, and Atari 800.   It's difficult to describe that morning in words, although I've tried,  because it meant so much then, and the meaning has only increased over the years.  It was the single most important life-changing event of my young life.

Over the years, it has affected my brother and I in couple ways.  First, we tried to recreate the feeling of that morning on numerous times by buying each other computer and video game products , but it never works.  Whether it was with an Atari 7800 in 1986,  a Sega Master system in 1989, a slew of Atari ST computer games in 1990,  A CD-ROM drive in 1992, a flood on Atari Lynx Games in 1993, etc., it was ever been the same.     It just goes to show that "magic" has a way of existing in it's own space and time,  and sometimes you need to simply experience it, and try to remember it, because it's unpredictable, and no easy to conjure on your own.

The other thing it has done, at least for me, is to try to get me to give that same feeling to my own kids.  Although I've tried many times, this Christmas was the first time any of my children expressed emotions close to mine from that Christmas 31 years ago.  My middle daughter asked for a sewing machine this year, and I my wife and I decided to not cheap-out, and get her a decent machine, and everything she needed to get going.   Neither if us are into sewing, and neither are her sisters.  It's her thing.  Just like computers were for me and borther back in 1983.  Yesterday in the car, as we drove to get hamburgers she said  this to me:  "daddy, that as the best Christmas ever."

Mission, finally, accomplished.




1981 : Atari VCS Christmas

 In the fall of 1981, just after starting junior high school, my brother Jeff and I tried to convince our parents that we 'needed' an Atari VCS for Christmas. Our parents had never been very electronics or modern convenience friendly, so it was quite a tough sell.  Other than a color TV (Zenith console circa 1972), there was nothing in our house that would signify to, say a time traveler from the year 2181, that technology had progressed much since the end of World War II.  My mom washed the dishes by hand, threw her food garbage in a compost trash can, opened cans with two hands, a tool, and a twisting motion, popped popcorn on the stove in covered pot, 'processed' food with a knife and a cutting board, made coffee with a pan and a strainer on the stove, and heated all meals in a vintage O'Keefe And Merit built-in oven using gas only (never waves of any kind, micro, or otherwise).  Likewise My dad mowed the lawn with a push mower, paid for all purchases with cash (never credit), listened to A.M. radio exclusively, and refused any kind of telephonic upgrade beyond the, a single, flesh colored, wired, rotary telephone in  the living room.  For our entertainment our house received channels (2-13 and 28) and had a stereo system that could play a phonograph records only (no supports for tapes). 

The very idea that a video game system could invade this environment was beyond unthinkable: it was ludicrous. Our parents did not waste money on non-essentials or 'fad' products, and if they were going to make any kind of purchase they needed concrete proof that it would not be a wasted effort.   Even then, there were no guarantees.   Ever since we had played the Atari at our friend Carrie Lenihan's house in 1978, we had hinted that a VCS would be the ultimate gift.  Several Christmases went by though, and there had been no movement in that direction at all.  At one point, a  Radio Shack TV Scoreboard Pong System made it's way into our house by way of 75% clearance, but  it did not fit the bill and was quickly forgotten.

The problem was, things in the video game world were heating up considerably, and after 1981, there would be no turning back.  The past summer, while doing the laundry at a local laundromat, we convinced my mom to take us the adjacent HW Computers store to look around.   The store was an Atari dealer, so they had racks of Atari 8-bit computers games and stacks of Atari computer equipment.  They also sold Atari VCS games.    While we were prepared to see the same old stuff like Combat! , Adventure and Circus Atari, we were not prepared for the newest game in the case: Space Invaders.  I had suspected that Atari would start releasing popular coin-op games on their system, but the proof was right there in the store.  However, what we saw next sealed the deal.   Right next to Space Invaders was the box for Atari coin-op game Missile Command, and next to that a "coming soon" flyer for Asteroids.   Asteroids, to us at the time, was the best game ever made.  We spent countless quarters playing it.  To have it in our own home would be amazing.   All of a sudden, having an Atari VCS went from "nice to have" to "the most important thing in the world to an eleven year old ."  That said,  getting one would take careful planning and a coordinated effort.   My twin brother and I had never wanted anything that badly though, so we had to try everything we could think of.

After some discussions in our room, we decided that our  for attack was to prove to our parents that a video game system was a genuine product any kid would be required to have under the Christmas Tree.  While this would not guarantee a purchase, it would set the ground work of legitimacy, which for my parents, was very important.     

The first part of this ad-hoc plan, was to let our parents know how much we wanted an Atari by pointing it out to them in every store we could find.    It was a simple plan, based on the theory that if you repeated the same actions over and over again, they might get the point.  A few rounds of Combat in the TV section at Fed Mart on every visit,  begging to descend the stairs the basement Toy section of Sears to look at the Sears Tele-Game  behind the glass case,    making a bee-line into every electronics, toy, and music store in the mall just to get glimpse of Atari's wood paneled wonder and the stack of games that were available.  We made it a point to salivate over the machine in any and every store we visited that had one.  We were obnoxious and relentless.

Our second front in the battle for an Atari VCS  was through Electronic Games magazine.   Electronic Games , the first ever magazine dedicated to video games, published its first issue in November of 1981, at almost the perfect time for our plan.  Jeff and I found it on the news stand at Luck'ys super market, convinced our mom to let us buy it (she didn't want us to waste our money), and devoured every page over an entire weekend.  When we came-up for air on Sunday night, we both knew we had found a new angle.   Electronic Games  Magazine was the first legitimate, tangible concrete proof  that video games were not  just a passing fad.  Would a passing 'fad' have a dedicated magazine?   My dad loved magazines.  He himself subscribed to  enthusiast magazines dedicated to his own hobbies  (Dirt Bike. Shotgun News, Prevention).  This was "our" hobby.  He had to see that, right?   We showed him the magazine, and he seemed to agree.  It was not altogether remarkable reaction, but it was a solid start.

Our third front in this battle for an Atari VCS was the most complicated, but also the most important.   We needed  to appeal to their  innate sense of frugality, installed in them (in my opinion) by living through the Great Depression.  The Atari VCS was expensive.  At $139.99 (list price) in 1981, it was just about the same price as an Xbox One in 2014.  No one gift for any occasion (birthday, Christmas, anniversary, etc.) had every cost as much.  It would be an uphill battle.    My dad was  a very cost-conscious man (with everything but his own hobbies).  He loved the idea that his job at Hughes Aircraft afforded him all sorts of discounts on items for which 'regular' people had to pay full-price.  For instance, all of our movie tickets came from Hughes Employee Association.  However, the tickets had so many restrictions that we didn't see any movies until they were 1 or 2 months into their run.  Sure, this rendered my brother and I socially retarded because we couldn't join any pop-culture playground movie discussions, but hey, we saved $.25 per ticket.   Likewise, we only went to Disneyland on the 'Open From 7:00 PM-1:00 AM Hughes Aircraft 'Special Event' nights,  and we did most our Christmas shopping at Gemco and Fedco, 'club' stores that allowed-in only union workers, government employees and government contractors (read: Hughes Aircraft employees).   It was on one of our trips to Gemco,  that we showed our dad the Atari VCS, and demonstrated the Combat! cartridge.  He was intrigued, but when he saw the price tag ($129.99), he almost had a heart attack.  There was no way he was going to spend so much money on any kind of toy.   It was a huge step backwards.

At just about the same time, Toy R' Us was running a TV commercial in which they advertised the Atari VCS for a "discount" of  $139.84, roughly a $.15 cent off the list-price.  Our dad hated Toys R' Us with a passion because they almost never had discounts.  Jeff and I made sure to show him this commercial whenever it was on.  Even though the Atari VCS cost a relative fortune (for the time) at Gemco, it was nearly $10 less than the hated Toys R. Us and their fake $.15 cent insult of a discount.  My dad dad's innate ability to find bargains was ignited.   He knew his boys wanted one of those machines, and he knew how to get it at a discount.   At that very moment, I believe I heard a distinct clicking sound:  as if the frozen gears of our own little video game universe began to turn, ever so slightly.

The next line of attack on this front was the 1981 Sears Christmas Wish Book.   Every year since we were very little, my mom would break out the Wish Book and have us circle the stuff we wanted for Christmas.  For the past few years we had almost exclusively circled sports equipment, Legos, and Star Wars toys.  However, for Christmas 1981 Jeff and I pointedly circled the Sears Tele-Game (their officially branded version of the Atari VCS).  We really did not want a Sears Tele-Game.  No kid in their right-mind wanted one.  A Tele-Game was up there with Tough Skins and Hydrox cookies, Shasta Cola and Kinney Shoes as the least favored name brand substitutes in existence.   However, that would not matter.  Even though we circled stuff in the Wish Book, our parents hardly ever bought anything from it, they just used it as a guide.  Furthermore, if there was any store my dad hated more than Toys R Us, it was Sears.  He would complain constantly about their poor quality products, and what he called 'built-in depreciation' that forced people to use Sears' product service centers prematurely.  All of this was probably little more than urban legend, but it served our purpose so we used it to our advantage.  We strategically placed the Wish Book in an area my dad could find it (on the kitchen table), and left it open to the Tele Game page for a few days. Our hope was that our dad would notice the Tele-Game and ask us about it.  However, this did not happen.  He hated Sears too much to give the Wish Book the necessary attention required to establish any sort of hatred towards a  cheap imitation product.

We had to step-up our attack to another level.

There are some significant areas of life that make being a twin completely lame: it's very difficult establish your own identity, many of your birthday and Christmas presents are for 'both of you', you are never sure people are interested in you as a person or just because you seemingly have a doppelganger walking around with you, and you can easily become socially inept because you have a built-in buddy and you never have to learn to make friends on your own.  However all of these things are trumped in those rare moments when you mind-meld into an unstoppable single-headed force. Rare as they are, it's those times that make being a twin one of the coolest things in the world.  At that moment in 1981, we had  to harness that power if we were to be successful in our VCS quest.

"Hey. Jeff.", I said one morning in early December as I walked into the kitchen, looking at the strategically located Sears' Wish Book conveniently located next to our dad who was eating homemade corn and blueberry pancakes for breakfast, "What. Is. That. In. the. Sears'. Wishbook?" 

Without missing a beat, Jeff replied  "Hey. Steve. It's. An. Atari. 2600. Video. Game. System. The. Same. One. We. Showed. Dad. At. Gemco, Remember?"

As the first portion of our act completed, we both noticed no discernible reaction from our father.  We had to step it up a bit.

"Sears', I replied, 'Don't. They. Have 'Built-In. Depreciation?"  

My Dad's ears perked up.  We had hit a nerve.  

"Yes," Jeff replied, "Look. Closer.  It's. Not. Actually. An. Atari. It. Is. A, Cheap, Sears' Rip-Off!"  (Even though this was not technically true, my dad had no idea).

With that, my dad picked up the Wish Book and looked at the page.  'Damned Sears!' he blurted out between bites of corn cake "Thank God for Gemco."

Then he put down the catalog returned to eating. 

Mission.  Accomplished.

With most of the groundwork laid, Jeff and I continued our push into December.  We continued to point out the Atari VCS at every store that had one, we circled it in newspaper ads, got 'overly' excited when one came on the TV and parents were in the room.   As school let-out for Winter break, Jeff and I both felt an Atari might be within our grasp, but the 'not knowing' was killing us.   Not able to contain our desire to know 'the truth', we decided to ask our older sister Mari if she knew anything. 

Mari was always kind of an enigma to Jeff and me.  She watched us when we were little, but as she got older it was tough for Jeff and me to relate to her.  She started staying out very late on school nights, and was into the very first punk rock scene in L.A.  This meant she hung out with all sorts of odd, fascinating and sometimes downright scary characters.   We wanted to know what our sister was about, but it was difficult to get her attention away from the gritty 'scene' and back to her plain old geeky twin brothers.

However, Mari was also the most responsible young adult we knew.  She was paying her own way through Design School, had her own car, and appeared to have intimate knowledge of the inner working of the Fulton family.    If anyone knew anything about an Atari VCS secretly coming into the house via our parents, it would have been Mari.  As well, on the occasions we did spend time with Mari, she sometimes took Jeff and I to the Castle Golf and Aladdin's Castle arcades to play Breakout and Asteroids, or played other games with us at Safeway and Pizza Hut, so she knew how much we liked video games, and probably had some idea about how much we wanted an Atari VCS.


Jeff and I cornered Mari just outside her room (a mother-in-law attachment to the garage) a few days before Christmas, and begged her for information.  However, what she told us was not what we wanted to hear.

"I have no idea if mom and dad bought you and VCS for us for Christmas" she said, "but it's time you guys faced the cold hard reality of mom and dad."

"What's that?" I asked her.

" You don't think mom and dad have heard your hints?  Don't you think they WANT to get you an Atari?  The truth is, an Atari is expensive, and mom and dad just don't have it this year.  Maybe if dad works some overtime, they can get you one next year.  Maybe, maybe not. "

My brother rand I just looked at her and she continued.

"I have to pay my way through school, and buy everything that I need.  Appreciate what you get, save your money, and maybe you can get one on your own.  That's what I'd do."

With that, she went back into her room, shut the door, and turned up The Clash on her stereo.

Mari's words (and 'Clampdown') rang in my ears all day.

I went through many phases of emotion that day, but by the end I realized that Mari had to be right.  The truth was always there, but Jeff and I just did not want to see it.  There was a good reason why my mom did not want us to waste our money on video game magazines, a good reason why our parents were so frugal, always looked for bargains, were careful where they shopped, and did not buy modern appliances. 

They could not afford them.   Period.  

 A shattering feeling of complete disillusionment hit me at that moment.  For the first time I realized that merely 'asking' for something did not mean I would always 'get' it.  Simply put, I realized for the first time that I, was not in control of everything.   No manner of hints and cajoling could change the fact that, if the money wasn't there, it was not there.

Christmas morning was always a rare, happy blur in the Fulton household.  For all the time our family spent ignoring and fighting each other during the other 364 days of year, we would try to make it up on Christmas.    Christmas morning was one of the only times you would see the following in our house:  people hugging, people thanking each other, people saying 'I thought of you when'', my mom and dad smiling at each other, my sisters getting along, people asking my mom if she needed help with anything, and our entire family in the room together at the same time.  We might not have had much money, but collectively as a family we seemed to saved it all so we could wrap-up tons of stuff for each other for Christmas.    Present were usually  inexpensive: model kits, art supplies, books, household items, etc.   More emphasis was placed  on the thought than the value, and "surprises" were of utmost importance.    It was our only real happy "family" time of the year, so we wanted it to last as long as possible.   Our present opening lasted hours, with each person watching everyone else open their presents, 'ooing' and 'awing' over them, and then moving onto the next present.  We would break for breakfast, and sometimes even for lunch before all the present opening was complete.  None of us ever stated it, but I'm pretty sure the reason it lasted so long was because no one wanted it to end.  As soon as the last present dropped, we all would retire to our various rooms, and pretty much ignore each other  (save for Birthdays, Easter  4th Of July, and Thanksgiving) for another  year.

I do not remember much from Christmas 1981, except for the last two presents that Jeff and I opened.  It was late morning,  The Christmas tree lights had long-since gone from lighting-up a darkened room to blinking ineffectively against the day light.  It had been a good year, and even though there had not been an Atari VCS yet, I recall being satisfied with what our parents had given us.  Mari's words, while difficult for my 11 year old mind to completely understand, had broken through.   I had moved from disillusionment to mere disappointment.  Jeff and I talked it over, and we decided that we would save any Christmas money we received (usually from relatives) until our birthday (in January) and see if we could afford an Atari VCS by then.  It was a thin plan, but it gave us the illusion that we could control our own destiny, which was a comforting feeling.

So when the wrapped box the size of an Atari VCS was taken from its' hiding place behind the tree and was handed to Jeff and I to rip open, it came as an utter and complete surprise.  As the wrapping came flying off, there it was in our hands, a real 'Atari Video Computer System' complete with Combat! cartridge, two joysticks, two paddles, TV switch-box and AC adapter.


Jeff and I were completely stunned.  

Before we could even fathom how it had actually happened, Mari handed us the present she had bought for us.  We opened it up to reveal the Breakout cartridge for the VCS.  Mari was in on the plan all along.    She had done a bit of convincing on her own to get my dad to buy the Atari VCS for us, and was instrumental in the process of getting it for us on Christmas morning 1981.   My dad did his part by working some extra overtime at Hughes so he could afford the purchase.   It was a rare moment when our family actually seemed to "work" the way I thought family should work.  The fact that I was lucky enough to end up with an Atari VCS as the result is something I will never forget.    

By the way, as it turned out, our Mom had not only 'got' our hints, but was concerned that we would not be sufficiently surprised on Christmas morning if they did indeed get us a VCS. She turned to Mari and had her try to throw us off the track.   In the end, all of our twin scheming almost worked too well, and could have back-fired completely if my mom had decided that there would be no surprise.

For sake of this story I'd like to pretend that we had an idyllic Christmas day playing the Atari VCS, and enjoying family time over Combat! And Breakout, but I can't.  In reality the VCS didn't work out of the box (the TV connection was broken), so we had to take it back to Gemco (of course) the next day to get a replacement.   Since we were already out of the house, we spent our Christmas money on Asteroids, Activision Tennis and Activision Laser Blast, cartridges then took the haul home and played the Atari VCS all-day and into the night on December 26th and all the way through Sunday January 3rd, the day before went back to School It probably seemed like a complete waste of time to anyone from the outside, but to Jeff and I, it was pure bliss.  

Mari played along with us most of the time too, which was cool, because we never really had anything at home prior that we all liked to do together.   The Atari VCS helped created actual "family time" among siblings that never really existed in our house before that day.    In the years that followed, Jeff and I and Mari formed camaraderie over video and computer games that has lasted until this Christmas.    Even though she was 9 years older and wiser than us, the medium of the video game leveled the playing field so we could compete on equal footing, and  helped create a an intangible sense of understanding between us that, while  wavering in the ensuing decades, has never broken.      Every year since, we have purchased each other at least one game for Christmas, and even though we don't have as much time to play them with each other as we used to, we are always with each other in spirit.   This year I bought Mari (a female gamer at age 53) two PS2 games (Star Ocean and Kingdom Hearts 2).  Jeff bought her some computer games, and Jeff and I bought each other the the recently released AtGames ColecoVision and Intellivision plug and play consoles.   Our love of video games will never die.

On the other hand, our parents and our other sister Carol never really warmed-up to the Atari VCS like we hoped they would. I think my mom played Asteroids once, and my dad might have tried Combat! a couple times.  Our sister Carol, 16 at the time, probably just said 'ewww, geeks' and ran away from it.  I don't think they have ever understood what we liked about video games or what the VCS meant to us, and to be honest, I'm not sure I could really explain it to them if I tried.  

All I know is this:  My brother and I  received an Atari VCS for Christmas in 1981, and it turned out to be one of the best Christmas surprises ever.  


Interview With Ralph Baer, Inventor Of Home Video Games (R.I.P.)

Note: Dec.  7. 2014:  R.I.P. Ralph Baer, the inventor of video games.  This interview was conducted in 2005 for gamerdad.com
For more information on Ralph Baer, see his web site.
Steve Fulton When did you get the idea to create a home video game system?
Ralph Baer:  August 31, 1966Steve Fulton What games could your "Brown Box" play?

Ralph Baer: Ping-pong, tennis, hockey, Handball, volleyball, gun games, chase games (one spot chasing and wiping out another). It also had a joystick attachment with a golf ball mounted atop the shaft with which we played "golf" using an actual putter.

Steve Fulton Your original Brown Box was called an  "analog" computer by Atari to defend against a Magnavox lawsuit. What do you have to say about that?

Ralph Baer: The Brown Box and its 1968 predecessor developmental systems were neither built around an analog computer (come on now...this was a consumer product!) nor was a purely analog design. While its circuitry was made up of discrete components, the circuits contained Flip-Flops, AND and OR gates, One-Shots, diode matrices, etc...what are these circuits if they are not digital circuits? People think that discrete component circuitry was strictly analog. This is complete nonsense. Of course we built digital circuits in the forties and fifties before there were IC's. In the sixties, plug-in cards with as little as one or two flip-flops were typical of logic modules of the day. So the notion that the Brown Box and its production version, the Magnavox Odyssey game was comprised of "analog circuits" is a myth...but that myth has a real origin: During the lawsuits, the opposition (Bally-Midway, Seeburg, etc) tried to make the judge believe that our circuits were analog and theirs were digital and hence they didn't fall under the Claims of our patents. The judges ruled otherwise and saw through this ploy in a hurry.

Re. cost considerations: In 1967, when the lab work to design a practical consumer product began at Sanders (in my little skunk works lab), IC's were not an option although we were comfortable with them in our defense electronics work. They were just too expensive for use in a consumer product. We HAD to use discrete components (resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes etc.) .When Magnavox finally began to negotiate a license starting in late 1969, they dragged out the negotiations (just like the big company they were) until well into 1969. The engineers were then turned on to get a production design out the door by late 1971 and production had to ramp up in early '72. There was just no time to redesign the product radically (which it should have been because a lot changed in IC pricing between 1967 and 1971) So they went with what was realistic: They copied our Brown Box circuitry almost part for part and changed only those things that FCC RFI regulations forced them to alter so as to meet the FCC specs for spurious radiation.

Steve Fulton There are many people who believe that analog computers, while severely limited, were elegant devices. Do you have any special views on analog computers?

Ralph Baer: Analog computers were indeed elegant devices. I used them as did many other radio and TV engineers in the fifties and sixties. They were great for modeling dynamic motion problems....but they cost on the order of $10,000 or much more. So forget analog computers as a means of playing home "video" games, except in the context of a demo in a lab environment where one or more analog computers were sitting around and one could temporarily borrow one for a "fun" ballistics demo (like Higinbotham's so-called tennis game).

Steve Fulton You and Magnavox had to sue Atari (and others) over Pong and patent infringement. Were you satisfied with the outcome?

Ralph Baer: After ten years of litigation in courts from Chicago to San Francisco we collected many tens of millions of dollars. I spent a great deal of time working with our lawyers and testifying in court. The outcomes of all of our lawsuits were completely successful (for our side) and the infringers uniformly had to cough up large sums of money. At the same time, we (Magnavox under the Sanders patents) had well over a hundred patent licensees all over the world in the mid-seventies and collected large amounts of license income from those licenses, also.

Steve Fulton Was the patent on your videogames for play methods or for the hardware or both? Did it matter that the Atari products were digital and yours was analog?

Ralph Baer: We won our lawsuits because our patents covered both what is termed "means plus function"...i.e. we showed in the patents and claimed the concepts of the interaction of machine controlled screen symbols (such as a ball) and player controlled symbols such as the player paddles ( the functions). We also showed how this interaction could be accomplished (the means). Any game made by a manufacturer that exhibited the type of interaction defined by our patents was found to be infringing...and the judges in Federal District Courts and in the Court of Appeals all saw it that way.

Steve Fulton What did you think the first time you saw Atari Pong?

Ralph Baer: I/We did not see it but heard about the demo of the first Pong unit built by Alan Alcort (sic) about September of 1972. The minute we got wind of its existence, it was clear that there had to be some reason why a ping-pong arcade game (of all things) popped up from nowhere. It did not take long to find out that Nolan Bushnell and other Nutting Associates employees had signed the guest book at a Magnavox new-product demonstration at the Airport Marina in LA (on May the 26th, 1972 I believe) and that they (including Nolan Bushnell) had played the Odyssey ping-pong gamed hands-on there. Later denials by Bushnell and others in court or in depositions (or to the press) that playing the Odyssey ping-pong game had nothing to do with creating the Pong game were found less than credible by the courts and, in any event, defy logic and common sense. Bushnell's 1972 Computer Space game (being produced by Nutting Associates) was a commercial failure because it was too hard to play. When the visitors saw and played the Odyssey game, at least one light went on in Nolan Bushnell's head: Hey this is neat and easy to play! And secondly, somewhere along the line Bushnell recognized that there was such a thing as a consumer home game market (as introduced by the Odyssey game) and that 40 million homes are a slightly larger base for a new business than a few thousand arcades. And so Atari entered the home video game business in 1975 and made big success of it. But Odyssey had shown the way! With 360,00 games out there by early 1975, it was also a resounding success.

Steve Fulton Were you involved any other Magnavox videogame systems throughout the 70s and 80's?

Ralph Baer: Yes, throughout the seventies. There was virtually no Magnavox video game activity in the eighties...nor did anybody else do much in the early eighties. The industry had tanked completely and did not get resurrected until Nintendo came along, having spent a lot of money on designing and producing a 1980's type product. During the seventies I worked with Magnavox with varying degrees of success. I was responsible for resurrecting the Odyssey2 game in 1978 when management at Magnavox made the decision not to go forward with the program. I was successful in turning them around. I did however, play a major role in getting Colleco into a hugely successful string of video game products starting in 1975. All of these games were based on the General Instrument AY-3-8500 series of single-chip game devices. I was instrumental in getting Colleco first dibs on what was then a limited (yield) product availability problem for the AY-3-8500 devices. Colleco sold over a million Telstar games as a result and became a licensee of ours early on. We (a small group at Sander
s I set up) also helped Coleco by designing parts of their next years models (the Coleco Arcade game, etc.)

Steve Fulton When did you leave Magnavox?

Ralph Baer: I never worked for Magnavox. During the 1980's I got out from under running a division with 500 engineers and support people at Sanders and became an Engineering Fellow at Sanders Associates, later a subsidiary of Lockheed. Magnavox was our licensee under our video game patents and any relationship betwen Magnavox and Sanders (including me) was done at arm's length through mutual, contractual agreements (or by ignoring management and trying to help engineers at Magnavox because I figured that their success meant increased license income for Sanders, so to hell with management's distrust of cooperative arrangements, which is typical). I retired from Lockheed/Sanders in 1988 and have been an independent inventor, consultant and licensor of novel electronic games (like Simon, Maniac, ComputerPerfection and dozens more). ever since.

Steve Fulton Why do you think Maganavox and Atari in the 80's and Atari again in the 90's failed, while other videogame companies (i.e. Nintendo) were so successful?

Ralph Baer: Mostly because management did not have the courage of their convictions and would not spend the money required to develop new systems based on the latest semiconductor technology. It took Nintendo to step into the breach and resurrect the video game business.

Steve Fulton What invention are you the most proud of?

Ralph Baer: I have over 150 patents worldwide and even all of these reflect only a very small part of all the novel stuff I have come up with, much of which went into production. But how can you beat creating an industry with a novel product category. So obviously, the answer has to be video games.

Steve Fulton Did you ever play videogames with your kids?

Ralph Baer: Sure...I have three kids and they were between 10 and 16 when I brought early breadboard hardware (and later the Brown Box) home to see how they would react to the idea of playing games on a home TV set. My kids are all in the mid and late forties now and have their own children but they vividly remember playing ping-pong downstairs in my lab. So do some of their friends who came and visited...one of whom is my current primary physician now!

You didn't ask re. parent's responsibilities when it comes to their kids' choice of games...but I'll tell you anyway: It is up to the parents to watch what games their kids are playing. I do not intend to weigh in on what the practical problems with that need are. All I know is that grandkids are one's reward for not strangling one's teenagers. We have four of them and I now watch video games over their shoulders ...and sure enough, they play games which I really do not care for...but I'm not their parent.

Steve Fulton Since you basically invented home video games, and are a father and a grandfather, would you call your self an original "Gamerdad"?

Ralph Baer: I assume that Andrew Bub came up with that title. I like it. I guess, by definition, I must be a "GamerDad".

Steve Fulton If you could choose to do one thing in your life over-again, what would it be?

Ralph Baer: I would just like to pick up where I left off because I am still cranking out neat things (go to Toys-R-Us and see if they stock some of Hasbro's (Playskool) Talkin' Tools...they are based on my inventions...and I am still in demand among friends and others for occasional engineering design help. My favorite activity is analog circuit design (but I'll crank out logic designs, too, when I need 'em. Software is my younger partner's job, although I dabble in it, too). There aren't too many guys around my age (82) who still sit at the bench and cobble up circuit designs. It's just an art form and it's what I would definitely do if I had a chance to do it all over again....fat chance!

Steve Fulton Do you get tired of people asking you questions like these?

Ralph Baer: Are you serious? This is too much like work! The trouble is that once I start getting sucked in to answering the first question, I can't shut up. That must be obvious.


Atari Nerd Chronicles: 1982-1983: Computer Lab

Note: I've been writing these little stories on the internet for the better part of the last decade.   Out of my entire close and extended family, only a very few have taken the time to read them.  One of those people was my Uncle Richard.   My mom's brother, he was the only uncle I ever knew.  He was in the Navy in WWII, and  worked as an engineer in the Silicon Valley almost since it's inception.  He was also a pilot, and the father of 9 kids.    Since my mom is not on the internet, every time he read one of my stories that he enjoyed, he would print it out and send it to her so she could read it offline.  When I was growing up, my uncle was one of the few people in my life that shared my love of computers and technology.  I loved the idea that my uncle was sitting in far away location, reading my stories, and enjoying them enough to actually print them out sand mail them to my family.  Uncle Richard died this morning, at 4:30 AM  This story, in particular was one of his favorites, so I'm reposting it in his honor today.   Thanks Uncle Richard for all your love and support over the years.  I was blessed to have known you.   I will always believe that you are out there. somewhere, reading my little internet stories about growing up and technology.  One day, I promise, you will feature in one of these stories yourself.  I've already written it in my head, I just need to get it down on paper,


Part I: Mr. Hughes

In the fall of 1982 I started 7th grade at Foster A. Begg Jr. High School in Manhattan Beach California. My classes were Homeroom, Honors English. Pre-Algebra, Honors Science, Honors Social Science, Drama, Spanish 1, and P.E. My Schedule was stacked with very difficult classes, and historically, that would have been perfectly fine. I was a pretty good student all through elementary school, wracking-up good grades and a fistful of dollars my dad would pay for every 'A' on my report cards. As 7th grade started though, my outlook on life chnaged. Just 9 months before, at Christmas, my brother and I had received our Atari 2600 VCS. Then, instead of spending our free-time reading or watching baseball on TV, we were playing video games.  We played a lot of video games. However, it was not just playing, we also spent a lot of time designing our own games on the graph paper my dad brought home from his job at Hughes Aircraft, and with BASIC language manuals we had borrowed from the Manhattan Heights Library. Where once I had found school to be the most thrilling thing I had ever experienced, the idea of playing and making video games had taken its place.

It was no wonder then, that my first couple months of 7th grade did not go very well. I was doing OK, but the hardest class for me was Spanish. For some reason, while the idea of learning a computer language like BASIC seemed like second-nature, the idea of learning a foreign language simply did not compute. It started off badly, as Mrs Boerman (no joke) told me my Spanish name was 'Esteban'. I could never spell it right, and always got -1 for spelling it 'Estebaun' on every paper I submitted.. Even more difficult for me though, were the every day words. Mrs. Boerman called on kids at random to name something in the room using Spanish instead of English. I was absolutely terrified of her calling on me, but I simply could not commit many of the words to memory. In fact, the only word I memorized was El Reloj which meant "clock", because I was always staring at the thing in class, begging for it to move a little faster before she called on me.

When our grades came out for the first quarter, I got A's in every class, except Spanish in which I received a "B-". It was the worst grade I ever received in any class (up to that point any way). The day after grades were handed out, I sat in my home room almost in tears, trying to figure out what to do. I simply did not like Spanish. There was no way I was going to do any better in the class, and the subject simply did not interest me at all. Mr. Hughes, my homeroom teacher noticed that I looked pretty sad, and asked me to see him before I left for first period. Mr. Hughes was a very quiet man who taught reading. I too stayed quiet, reading at a desk in the back because I was scared of the older kids in the room. He had never asked me to talk to him before, and my stomach fell as the first period bell rang, as I had no idea what he wanted to say to me. Mr. Hughes had a reputation of being "mean". I'd never seen it, but then I was never on the receiving end of any of his anger either.

"Steve, I noticed you look pretty upset today, what's up?", Mr. Hughes asked me as I slung my Wilderness Experience backpack over my shoulders in an attempt to to get out of the room as fast as possible.

"Umm,I err, I...I..I". I stuttered. I did that a lot in those days. Trying to get the words out of my mouth was sometimes the hardest thing in the world for me.

I tried again.

"Sp..Sp...Sp...Spanish" I finally blurted out, "i...i...i...it's too hard for me"

He looked at me for a second and then he looked down at the book I was holding, Computers For Kids - Atari, and back up at me and said "you know, Spanish is an elective. You don't have to take it. Let me find out if there is something else you can do that period"

"Oh...Oh...Oh Kay, great" I said back, and ran out the door to Drama class.

My response masked my complete and utter joy at the idea. I might be able to get out of Spanish! The idea was breathtaking. I spent the rest of the day in joyous daze. I could not wait another minute to hear what Mr. Hughes might have for me to do instead of Spanish class. The next day I nervously entered home room. I was hoping that Mr. Hughes had remembered what he was going to do, but I did not dare ask him. I propped up my Atari book and tried to concentrate on the basic programs inside, but it was very difficult to digest any of it. All I wanted to do was to hear what Mr. Hughes had to say. About 10 minutes before home room ended, Mr. Hughes called me up to his desk. This was it.

"I talked to Mr. Donalou..." he started.

Crap. Mr. Donalou was the Principal, I did not think it would have to that far.

"...he will call your mom call later today. He wants to speak with her.".

Crap crap. I had to wait the whole day again, and now for a call from the principal. My heart sank.

When I got home, my mom told me that she had indeed been called by the principal, and they had a discussion about Spanish class. She told me that Mrs. Boerman did not want me to leave class, and that there were no others elective classes I could take at that time. I'd have to wait until the end of the trimester, and then I could be a library aid. For now, the only thing I could do was be a teacher's aid for Mr. Hughes, or continue Spanish. I suppose they thought this would make me stick with Spanish, but they were wrong. I chose teacher's aid, and wanted to start immediately.

The next day I began my new job working in Mr. Hughes' class. He taught reading to 6th and 7th graders, and my job was to grade papers and quiz kids on the books they had read. Since we had read the same books the year before, the job was pretty easy for me. The only hard part was talking out loud, which I still feared like nothing else on earth and I found painfully difficult. However, I got to know Mr. Hughes pretty well in the next couple months. He always told me about the books he was reading, and he seemed interested in whatever I was reading myself (usually an Alfred Hitchcock And Three Investigators book, a Choose Your Own Adventure book, The Golden Treasury Of The Civil War, or a computer manual. Far from being the "mean" teacher of his reputation, I found him to be the type of teacher who loved to see kids light-up when they discovered the same things he discovered in the books he taught. The problem was, there were not too many of those at Foster A Begg in those years. I found him coming back to my aid's desk more and more often to talk about my books and what I thought of the 6th grade material. Over time I got pretty comfortable talking out loud because Mr. Hughes treated me like any other person. My stuttering and fear of speaking were not cured, but our conversations had gone a long way to prove to me that my ideas were worth speaking, and others might like to hear them.

When the first trimester was almost over, Mr. Hughes came to ask me about my plans for the upcoming trimester. I could stay as his aid, or work in the library. He told me he would look into some other possible options, but no matter what, I'd have to choose by the next day.

When I got home from school that day, my mom told me the school secretary had called. She said I needed to choose a new elective: teacher's aid, a Library aid or... Computer Lab aid.

I was shocked. Computer Lab Aid had never been discussed before. In fact,I had no idea what it was, but it sounded amazing.

My mom called the secretary back and told her that I wanted to be a Computer Lab aid.

It was exciting to think about. Even though I read books about computers, I did not have access to one. My friend down the street had one, but I rarely got to use it now that we were in Junior High and he was still in Elementary School. Having access to computers meant the possibility of programming one, which meant I might be able to some day get some of my game ideas up on the computer screen.

The next day in home room, Mr. Hughes was silent to me again for the first time in weeks. However, I read my Atari Basic book even more feverishly than ever. I had no idea what was in-store for me when I started my job in the computer lab, but I needed to prepare the only way I knew how, so I just kept reading and reading. A few minutes before first period, Mr. Hughes came back to my desk.

"So what are you going to do about your elective?" he asked.

"Umm...I'm going to help out in in the Computer Lab" I replied.

I looked up from my book, and I saw something on Mr. Hughes I had rarely seen before.

A smile.

He always sported a stern, yet concerned, yet scholarly look. Not mean mind you, just serious, and it rarely formed into a smile.

"Good, I thought you might choose that" he said back to me, and then he turned and went back to his desk.

Part II: Computer Lab

A few days later, day, instead of going to Room 22 to help Mr. Hughes, I slipped down the Room 23 ( next door ), and walked into my future.

Inside this little room were about 10 Apple IIe computers, all humming away running Bank Street Writer. There were about several different women who helped in the Lab, while Mrs. Brown, a math teacher, ran it as the faculty administrator. I handed her my transfer paper, and told her that was supposed to be there.

"Of course you are!", she said with a wild flair. "This is our lab. We have a class set of Apple IIe computers (one for every 3 kids), and look at this over here, our new Apple Lisa!"

She pointed towards what looked like an IBM PC on a desk separated from all the other computers. One of the adult aids was fiddling with it, trying to get it to work.

"We are still setting it up" she told me, "Now, look over here, we are setting-up for a writing class."

Mrs. Brown showed me around to all the Apple IIe computers that were running Bank Street Writer.

"Your job today will be to help anyone who needs it when they are writing."

Crap. I'd have to fake it. I's never used Bank Street Writer before, and I guess someone had told Mrs Brown that I could help teach it to other kids. Looking around, I spied a laminated card on one of the desks that listed the key combos for doing thinks like saving, loading, bolding, etc. I picked it up and studied it. If I was going to be successful I'd have to learn quickly. I felt my hands sweat a bit around the card. I could not blow this job on the first day.

Soon, the Lab filled with 30 6th graders, all fighting to sit in front of a computer. The lesson that day was to write a few sentences and save them to a 5.25" floppy disk. I floated around the room with my laminated card, trying to be helpful. Most of the kids were too busy pushing each other out of their chairs to even try the writing program. I did manage to help a couple kids get their work saved, but for the most part it seemed like an unmitigated disaster. After the kids filed out, I was afraid of what Mrs. Brown was going to say to me. Did she think it was my fault that my younger peers were such idiots when it came to computers?

However, Mrs. Brown came back told me that I did great. "It was one of our better classes!" she told me.

The class period was still not over, so I sat at one of the Apple IIe computers and typed a few key presses into Bank Street Writer. Within a couple minutes I had several paragraphs written describing how difficult it is to teach 11 year olds computer skills. When the bell rang, I saved the file to a disk, cleared the screen, and got-up left for my next class.

The following day I walked to the computer lab wondering just what they would have me do. However, when I got there, Mrs. Brown was absent. I asked one of the other ladies, the one who was trying to get the Lisa to work the day before,what I should do. She just looked at me coldly and said something that sounded like: "not mess things up for me." I had no idea what she was talking about, but it was enough to get me to cocoon-up for the day. I sat down at one of the Apple IIe computers in the back and looked through the disk-box next to it. I filed through the floppy disks until I came to one that looked really intriguing: Sands Of Egypt. I put the disk into drive A: and rebooted the machine. Soon, the hi-res title screen for the game came-up, and I was playing a full-on adventure game on a computer in the middle of the school day. I'd never done anything like it before, but I did not want to stop. No one came back to talk to me that day, so I just kept traveling across the desert near Cairo until the bell rang, then I got-up and left.

For the rest of the week, Computer Lab was mostly the same as day #2. Mrs. Brown was not there, and the other ladies either ignored me, or like the mean one, treated me like I was stealing food from their mouths. At one point the mean one asked me to get a printer set-up on one of the computers. I had never done that before, however, there was chart on the wall that Mrs. Brown had created that explained how to do it, and I got it done quite quickly. This seemed to make the mean lady even meaner. When she wasn't in the back fiddling with the still dormant Lisa, she complained that I had done everything wrong. This sent me to the back of the room again, where that I spent most of the rest of the week playing Sands Of Egypt. It was OK though, I was so engrossed in the game, I pretty much shut everything else out.

Anyway, within a couple weeks, things started to settle down in the lab and I worked into a routine. When Mrs. Brown returned, I was back to helping out in classes, connecting printers, showing kids the key combos for Bank Street Writer, and avoiding the mean lady. In my spare time I played Sands Of Egypt, Murder On The Orient Express, and a couple other games that were squirreled away on the floppy disks in the back of the room. I slowly proved my worth to Mrs. Brown and some of the other ladies. I became very adept at getting software set-up, and helping in the classes. In my spare time, as well as playing the games, and I started programming in Apple Basic. Not huge programs mind you, but small things like text displays, math calculators, and anything that would provide a nice graphic effect that could be produced in the few minutes a day I had to work on a program.

In home room during that trimester, Mr. Hughes was uncommonly quiet, even for him. We still spoke a bit, but it seemed that now that I was not his aid, I was back to just being another kid in class. I did see him talking to Mrs. Brown a couple times, and once he stuck his head into the computer Lab to see what I was doing. but for the most part he disappeared. I was never quite sure if he was mad at me for abandoning him as his aid so I could play with computers every day. He was so quiet it was hard to tell.

Back in the computer lab, things were starting to settle down. I think the programming work I was doing sent the mean lady over the edge. One day she asked me to come over and look at a program she was loading onto the computers. It was LOGO, a programming language that used graphics instead of text, designed to teach kids computer skills. I hated it. It made no sense to me. I got it to work, but it was obvious that I did not care about, so I failed to learn it. However, since I could not get into it it, the mean lady held it over me for the rest of the year. "BASIC is a dead end" she would say to me, just  out of Mrs. Brown's ear shot, "LOGO is the future."

Still, Mrs. Brown was impressed with my little programs. She started having me do more and more intricate work, and even told me that next year she wanted me to teach programming to some of the kids. As I continued into the 3rd trimester, the computer lab became my refuge. As long as I avoided the mean lady, I could play in a world on computers for 52 minutes a day. Without Spanish class dragging me down, I did pretty well in most of my other classes too. To stay as an aid you needed at least a B average, and I was pulling that down with no problems. By the end of the year I had the run of the place, and except for the still unusable Lisa, I could perform almost any task asked of me, and still manage to play games and program most of the time.

For all intents and purposes, The Computer Lab had become my favorite place in the world.

Part III: Cold Reset

On the last day of 7th grade, I came to home room with a box of Italian candy. Mr. Hughes wanted us to have a "food of the world" party for the last day of school. We needed to bring food from a country our ancestors had come from. Each of us put the food on our desk, and the other kids came around to sample everything. My Italian candy was not very popular, so I sat most of the time by myself with an almost full box in front of me. In the middle of the period, Mr. Hughes came back to talk to me. We had not spoken very much for months, ever since I stopped being his aid. I had chosen to think Mr. Hughes really did not try to be quiet towards me, that instead, without me helping in his class, there was just not time to talk about anything at length.

"How was Mrs Brown this year?" he asked me.

"Great! I loved it! I think I know what I want to do when I grow-up."

"What?", he replied laughing, "teach in the computer lab, or program computers?"

"Hmm. Both I suppose!" I laughed back at him.

"Steve, Next year, I'm going to get my own Apple IIe computer in this class. "

"Really?", I replied, genuinely surprised. I never knew that a regular classroom could have it's own computer.

"Sure!" he replied, with a bit of enthusiasm I had not witnessed since I was his teacher's aid. "We'll put it right back there next to the window" he said, pointing towards the back of the room.

"Start thinking of the stuff we can do with it, because it's going to be great!"

Mr. Hughes looked at me like he meant it and I could tell how much he wanted it to happen.

"Cool." I said back to him, trying stay calm even though it seemed really exciting.

Underneath it all, I was really happy because it seemed like Mr, Hughes was not mad at me after all. I always suspected that he might have had a hand in getting me the job as Computer Aid. He did seem to know Mrs. Brown pretty well , and now he was getting a computer in his room, so I knew he was interested himself. I left that day with high hopes for the next year and 8th grade.

Over the summer between 7th and 8th grade my brother Jeff and I worked very hard to convince my dad that we needed a computer of our own. We focused on an Atari 800xl, the shiny, sleek new entry to the Atari 8-bit line. We played a lot of video games too, including tons of games on the Vectrex we bought ourselves with money we made from selling a bunch of our Atari 2600 cartridges.

When the time had come to choose my elective for 8th grade, I instantly chose Computer Lab aid. Even though I felt guilty for not choosing Hr. Hughes class room aid again, the Computer Lab was where I really wanted to be.  I knew he would understand.  Furthermore, with the new computer in our home room class, I could help Mr. Hughes in the period too, and get almost double the computer time I had in 7th grade. Just the thought made me want to skip the summer and just start school right away.

However, when my class schedule arrived in the mail the week before school, I was shocked to see that my home room had been changed to room 3, Mrs Davis. I still had computer lab 3rd period, but I had no idea why I was not in Mr. Hughes' home room. Had he kicked me out? I had Mrs. Davis for 6th grade English class. She scared me in 6th grade,and the idea of her scared me again. On the first day of school I sheepishly entered her home room, and told her that I used to be in Mr. Hughes' home room class. Her usual stern demeanor changed for minute, and she softly welcomed me told me where to go sit-down. Mrs. Davis treated me that way for the first few weeks. At the time I never really understood why, but I just went with it. I questioned a couple of the other kids that had been in my home room with Mr. Hughes, but none of hem knew why they were not in his class any more either. In fact most of them were quite happy to be in other rooms. To be honest, Mr. Hughes was not terribly popular teacher at Foster A Begg Junior High. It was probably the reason we got long so well in the first place, but it should have been clear to me why not many people cared about the change.

While home room was confusing, Computer Lab with Mrs Brown started better than the prior year. The mean woman was still there, but I had more free reign to do what I wanted while being an aid. Even better though, a new wrinkle had been added. A Company named Pertech had decided to donate a set of 24 high-end CPM workstations to our school. By the second trimester they would arrive, and it would be our job to explore them and make them work.

Still, I could not help wondering why I was not in Mr. Hughes' home room. A couple weeks into the school year, I decided to go ask him. Instead of going to room 23 immediately for 3rd period, I decided to visit him in room 22. However, the door was locked. It suddenly occurred to me Mr. Hughes did not kick me out of his home room at all, Mr. Hughes was not working at our school any more. I have no idea why I had not figured that out before, but I just had not even considered the possibility. I asked Mrs. Brown about him, but she only mumbled something I could not hear, and told me that I needed to load LOGO on a couple computers for a class the next period.

A few weeks later, there was an announcement in the daily school bulletin that there would be a memorial service during 3rd period. It said that any student who had known Mr. Hughes could come and say goodbye.

Mr. Hughes.

Had known?

Say Goodbye?

I never made it to the service. I found out later that Mr. Hughes had died of cancer over the summer. The same summer that I had spent dreaming about getting a new Atari Computer for Christmas, he probably had spent dreaming about how to keep on living just one more day.

I was not mad at Mr. Hughes for not telling me he was sick. In fact, I had no idea what to feel about him. I suppose I should have been sad, but I wasn't. I was just numb. It took about 25 years for me to really understand what he meant to me as teacher. Years later, as I recounted this story in my mind, I realized that Mr. Hughes was the first teacher (and also one of the last) who actually cared about me as an individual as well as a student. He helped me get my start in computers by supporting my interest in them, even though he never got the chance to have one of his own. Actually, in a way, he did get a computer of his own... 24 to be exact. When the Pertech workstations arrived later that year, the only classroom available to house them was Room 22, Mr. Hughes' old classroom. Instead of one Apple IIe, Mr. Hughes received 24 of the best looking computers I had ever seen. He never got to see them in action, but I like to think he smiled the day they were wheeled into his old class room.

Sometimes, when it's quiet, and I'm working on some web site, program, or game, my mind slips back to the final day of 7th grade, and my conversation with Mr. Hughes. I remember the look in his eyes when he told me about his computer plans, and what would happen the next year. It's an image in my mind that I can't shake, nor do I want to. Often, it occurs to me that those were not real plans at all, but the dreams of a man who knew his time was limited and they could never possibly come true. He must have known he was sick already, and he told me about his computer dreams for a reason. Maybe, just maybe, Mr. Hughes handed me those dreams on that day in room 22, hopefully knowing that I'd keep them safe, that I was one kid who could steward them them into reality. Later that year I did get my first computer of my own and it launched my life as a computer nerd, an Atari Nerd, that still lasts to this day. I like to imagine that the thought of my eventual success in the computer field put another rare smile Mr. Hughes' face, and that he knew that a simple act as teacher, like maybe helping getting a student into Computer lab as an aid, changed that very kid's future, and set him on a path to success for the rest of his life.


My Top 100 Games Of All Time

I (sort of) keep this list running in my head all the time. It changes often, and usually one of the most recent games I've played moves up higher (see Torchlight 2). These games come from every platform I've ever owned or played (arcade, Atari 2600, Atari 800, Vectrex, Atari ST, Sega Master System, Sega Genesis, PS1, PS2, GBA, Wii, DS, XBox 360, PC). It's weighed down haevily by RPGs and arcade games. It turns out, as I look at 40 years in gaming, that's what I like to play.  (this was inspired by a discussion on http://www.quartertothree.com)

  1. Dungeon Master (ST)
  2. MULE (800)
  3. Escape From The Mind Master (VCS)
  4. Ultima IV (800)
  5. Fallout (PC)
  6. Torchlight 2 (PC)
  7. Final Fantasy I (GBA)
  8. Food Fight (7800)
  9. Star Castle (arcade)
  10. Roller Coaster Tycoon (PC)
  11. Dune 2 (PC)
  12. Xenon 2 : Megablast (ST)
  13. River Raid (2600)
  14. Temple Of Apshai Trilogy (800)
  15. Desert Strike (Genesis)
  16. Lost Dutchman Mine (ST)
  17. Oids (ST)
  18. Wolfenstein 3D (PC)
  19. Wing Commander (PC)
  20. Skyrim (360)
  21. Medal Of Honor (PS1)
  22. Crash Bandicoot (PS1)
  23. Galaga (arcade)
  24. Phantasie II (ST)
  25. 7 Cities Of Gold (800)
  26. Star Wars : Rogue Squadron (PC)
  27. Time Pilot (arcade)
  28. Dragon Stomper (VCS)
  29. Pinball Construction Set (800)
  30. Outlaws (PC)
  31. Anco Player Manager (ST)
  32. Boom Blocks (Wii)
  33. Sly Cooper (PS2)
  34. Baldur's Gate Dark Alliance (PS2)
  35. Red Dead Redemption (360)
  36. Battletech: The Crescent Hawk's Inception (PC)
  37. Excalibur (800)
  38. Zolar Mercenary (Lynx)
  39. Battlehawks 1942 (ST)
  40. Swimmer (arcade)
  41. Threshhold (800)
  42. Asteroids (arcade)
  43. Super Breakout (2600)
  44. Stanley Parable (PC)
  45. Star Wars Jedi Knight (PC)
  46. Might And Magic III (PC)
  47. Peggle (PC)
  48. Bookworm Adventures (PC)
  49. FIFA 2014 (Xbox One)
  50. Wii Sports Resort (Wii)
  51. Bosconian (arcade)
  52. Paper Mario : 1000 Year Door (GameCube)
  53. Midtown Madness (PC)
  54. Motorcross Madness (PC)
  55. Lego Star Wars (PS2)
  56. Scribblenauts (DS)
  57. Microleague Baseball (800)
  58. Full Throttle (PC)
  59. Interstate '76 (PC)
  60. Pinball Arcade (PC)
  61. Blue Max (800)
  62. Archon (800)
  63. Arkanoid (ST)
  64. Castle Wolfenstein (Apple II)
  65. Phantasy Star (Master System)
  66. Tetris (arcade)
  67. Star Wars The Arcade Game (arcade)
  68. The New Super Mario Bros. (DS)
  69. Namco Museum Vol. 1 (PS1)
  70. Ali Baba And The 40 Thieves (800)
  71. Gates Of Zendocon (Lynx)
  72. Wizard's Crown (ST)
  73. Legend Of Grimrock 2 (PC)
  74. Mine Storm! (Vectrex)
  75. Pinball Hall Of Fame: Willams Collection (Wii)
  76. Katamari Damacy (PS2)
  77. Miracle Warriors (Master System)
  78. Puzzle Quest (DS)
  79. Airborne Ranger (ST)
  80. Bit. Trip. Beat. (Wii)
  81. Guitar Hero (Wii)
  82. Scott Adam's Adventutres (800)
  83. Wargame Construction Set (800)
  84. Demon's Winter (ST)
  85. Command And Conquer (PC)
  86. Might And Magic VI (PC)
  87. Gamestar Baseball (800)
  88. The Dragons Of Hong Kong (Apple II)
  89. Crush Crumble And Chomp (800)
  90. Burnout 3 (PS2)
  91. FIFA International Soccer (Genesis)
  92. Simpson's Hit And Run (PS2)
  93. Twlilight 2000 (PC)
  94. Half Life 2 (PC)
  95. Road War 2000 (ST)
  96. Bard's Tale (ST)
  97. Pac-Man Championship Edition (360)
  98. Crimson Skies (PC)
  99. Warcraft (PC)
  100. Behind Jaggi Lines/Rescue On Fractalus (800)


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What Video Game Journalists In 2014 Could Learn From Electronic Games Magazine in 1983: Standards

Note: In the light of some more recent events in the gaming world, this seems even more relevant today than when I posted it in 2011. So here it goes again.

I was looking through my old copies of Electronic Games, and I happened upon an editorial by Arnie Katz from the March 1983 issue.  It lists the "standards" that the publication had decided to employ to make sure that they were creating the best magazine for their audience.  IMHO, I believe these became the defacto standards for game journalism until the "preview" era of the 1990's turned everything on it's head.  It did not get much at the turn of the 21st century, when the web made everyone "a game journalist". (By the way, for this exercise, the first three items, while interesting, are not as important as the last three).

March 1983 Electronic Games standards

By the was, we here at 8bitrocket.com are going to try to live by these standards from now on as well.


The Exact Moment Nintendo Won The Video Game War: Feb 12th, 1985


February 12th, 1985. That's the day Nintendo won everything.

It was the day the 2nd to last issue of Electronic Games magazine was published in the USA.  Electronic Games had been, since 1981, the defacto standard for video game news and information for the Golden Age of video games.    The creators of Electronic Games Magazine, Arnie Katz, Bill Kunkel, and Joyce Worley pioneered video game journalism.  In the pages of their magazine, the  rise and fall of the first great video game age was chronicled and recorded.

However, by the end of 1984, a huge shift was occurring in the gaming world.   Video game companies were going of of business at an astonishing rate, and the zeitgeist at the time held that consumers   were all moving to low-cost computers like the Commdore 64 and Atari 800XL.   Because of this, the publisher of Electronic Games Magazine decided that the  services of Katz, Kunkel and Worley were no longer needed.   Even though the team were a trusted group of journalists who had built hard-won credibility with the gaming public, they were shown the door.  Their expertise in video games was no longer necessary.

The last few issues of Electronic games published in 1985 (February, March and April) were used to burn-off a backlog of stories written by the original creators, while prepping the magazine to shift full-time to computers with new publication named "Computer Entertainment."   Even though magazine started as a dedicated publication for video games, the March 1985 issue had very little coverage  of gaming consoles.   Besides a handful of "clearing the plate" style  reviews for inconsequential end of life video games like Congo Bongo (Colecovision), Beamrider (5200), and Frogger II: Threedeep (2600),   there was only a single news item about video games named "Nintendo's Final Solution."

Besides having an amazingly insensitive and, as history would show, totally ironic title, the story was about the imminent release of the Nintendo "AVS" (Advanced Video Entertainment System..an early name for the NES).  The new editors of Electronic Games felt that this might be a "miscalculation" because the "video game market in America has virtually disappeared."    Obviously, using all available information, this is the only story they could have written about the "AVS".   They had recently fired the only people involved with the magazine that knew anything about video games.    Would Katz, Kunkel and Worley have treated the story in a different way?  The trio always heralded the arrival of new console with a sense of awe and wonder that matched their gaming enthusiast readership.   Would they have dug into the story, found out about the Famicom in Japan and followed-up the story with an interview and in-depth report about the console?    We may never know, but we also know they were never given a chance.

Personally, I don't recall reading this news item about Nintendo.   I had my subscription to Electronic Games at the time, and I was still reading every issue, but maybe not as thoroughly as I had in the past.  I too was seduced by the power home computers, and I believed they were the key to my future.  Even though I had grown up with arcade and console video games,   by 1985, I spent nearly all my time playing games and writing programs in BASIC on my Atari 800.     I probably skipped the news section of Electronic Games that issue to jump directly the Bill Kunkel's in-depth report on computer software piracy (the last in-depth story of his every published in Electronic Games) or the Strategy Session coverage of computer action RPG Gateway To Apshai.

There was one more issue of "Electronic Games," published in March of 1985 (the April issue), but it was effectively the first issue of "Computer Entertainment".    The last vestiges of the original Electronic Games had been wiped away. The focus of the magazine at that historic moment was the home computer revolution.    Any story about console video games was just an unfortunate distraction to their goal of re-launching a magazine for a new era.

And that was that.  That little story about Nintendo became the last of 1000's of stories Electronic Games Magazine published about video games. It just so happened to also be a report about the video game system that would one day take over the world.  The release of "AVS" , arguably the most important event in the history of video games,  was brushed-off as inconsequential also-ran, not even worth investigating further.  The pioneering voices of the video game revolution had been silenced.  It would be many years before another mainstream publication dedicated to video games would arrive on the news stands in the USA     In the absence of an independent magazine dedicated to video games, in-depth and investigative journalism was replaced by magazines published directly by console manufacturers.  All the information was controlled.   The enthusiasts had no voice.  The  war was over before it even started.

-Steve Fulton

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